Obesity, Diabetes and Co: Sucrose composition promotes lifestyle diseases
It has long been known that high sugar consumption leads to health problems such as obesity and diabetes. The high calorie content is responsible for this; however, scientific studies show that sucrose, regardless of body weight, has an adverse effect on certain metabolic processes due to its composition.
More and more Germans are too fat
More and more overweight people live in Germany. Many children and teenagers are too fat too. Health experts repeatedly warn against underestimating the risks of being overweight. Obesity is the strongest risk factor for developing type 2 diabetes: around 80-90 percent of people in Germany with type 2 diabetes are also obese.
Sugary diet promotes obesity and diabetes
Sugary foods and drinkable calorie bombs such as soft drinks are often the cause of obesity. They also promote type 2 diabetes.
The high calorie content is responsible for this, reports the German Diabetes Society (DDG) in a message.
On the other hand, scientific findings show that sucrose, regardless of body weight, has an unfavorable effect on certain metabolic processes due to its composition of fructose and glucose: This is how fructose stimulates the development of fatty liver.
Glucose releases the hormone GIP in the small intestine, which is also responsible for the development of fatty liver and promotes insulin resistance.
Obesity is the most common chronic illness in childhood and adolescence
In this country, two out of three men and every second woman are overweight, and just under a quarter are even obese, i.e. seriously overweight. 13 percent of children in Germany are overweight and over six percent are obese. That is more than twice as many as ten years ago.
According to the DDG, obesity has become the most common chronic illness in childhood and adolescence.
Around ten percent of very obese adolescents also have a glucose tolerance disorder. Studies have shown that there is a connection between the consumption of sugary drinks such as soft drinks and obesity, and type 2 diabetes.
"Even if the total number of calories plays the main role in the development of obesity, sugar contributes to it several times due to its composition," says Professor Dr. med. Andreas F. H. Pfeiffer, Head of the Department of Clinical Nutrition at the German Institute for Nutritional Research (DIfE) Potsdam-Rehbrücke and Head of the Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition at the Charité Campus Benjamin Franklin / Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin.
Release of an appetizing hormone
In the upper small intestine, glucose releases the hormone glucose-induced insulinotropic peptide (GIP) from the so-called K cells.
"This causes, among other things, the development of fatty liver and insulin resistance," explains Professor Pfeiffer.
“Because the GIP controls lipolysis in the adipose tissue on the one hand and ensures that less fat can be burned from the stores after a meal. It also controls the blood flow in the intestine so that the blood reaches the storage organs with its nutrients as effectively as possible and does not first become deposited as glycogen in the liver. ”
GIP also affects the brain, where it increases the release of the appetizing hormone neuropeptide Y (NPY). GIP also causes increased inertia.
"The weight gain with the onset of menopause in women also seems to be related to the hormone GIP," said Professor Pfeiffer.
Fructose is metabolized with high energy consumption
About 90 percent of fructose is extracted from the liver and metabolized with high energy consumption. Higher-dose fructose is a direct stimulator of fat synthesis in the liver.
“This is also confirmed in epidemiological studies in which fatty liver is closely related to fructose consumption. In recent studies on children it was even shown that a short-term restriction of fructose intake leads to a rapid improvement in fatty liver, ”explains Professor Pfeiffer.
In addition, fructose stimulates uric acid formation. "A high uric acid level can trigger gout and is associated with other metabolic disorders such as increased blood pressure and insulin resistance."
Thus, sugar promotes different aspects of civilizing metabolic diseases in a special way. (ad)